Europe 1854: Outbreak of the Crimean War
In 1853, Russia occupied the Ottoman vassal states of Moldavia and Wallachia. After the Russians refused an ultimatum to withdraw, the Turks declared war, but quickly lost control of the Black Sea when the Russians defeated their navy at Sinop. Unable to accept Russian dominance over the Ottoman Empire, France and Britain formed an alliance and entered the war a few months later.
3 Jul 1853 Russia invades Moldavia▲
On 3 July 1853, the Russian army crossed the River Pruth into Moldavia, a vassal state of the Ottoman Empire. Although the invasion was unopposed until November of that year, the invasion was considered by the Ottomans to be an act of war.
5 Oct 1853 Turkey declares war on Russia▲
The Ottoman Empire declared war on Russian Empire in response to the Russian occupation of Moldavia and Wallachia.
30 Nov 1853 Battle of Sinop▲
Russian warships led by Pavel Nakhimov destroyed an Ottoman naval squadron anchored in Sinop harbor, giving Russia operational control of Black Sea.
27–28 Mar 1854 Anglo-French entry into Crimean War▲
In response to the Russian attack on the Ottoman port of Sinope and after the Russian Empire ignored an Anglo-French ultimatum, the French Empire formally declared war on Russia on 27 March 1854. The following day, the United Kingdom also declared war, bringing both nations into the Crimean War.