Beer Hall Putsch
The Rise of Fascism
Beer Hall Putsch
The Rise of Fascism in Italy, National Socialism in Germany, the Spanish Civil War, and the expansion of Nazi Germany (8 November 1923)
Historical Map of Europe & the Mediterranean
By 1923, hyperinflation was ruining the German economy and helping destroy its ability to pay war reparations. In an attempt to force payments, France and Belgium occupied the German industrial area of the Ruhr. In the turbulent times that followed, a Mussolini-inspired German war veteran by the name of Adolf Hitler led his Nazi party in a failed attempt to seize power in Munich.
Occupation of the Ruhr
Treaty of Lausanne
The Grand National Assembly of Turkey signs the Treaty of Lausanne with the British Empire, the French Republic, the Kingdom of Italy, the Empire of Japan, the Kingdom of Greece, and the Kingdom of Romania in Lausanne, Switzerland. The treaty supersedes the failed Treaty of Sèvres, defining the borders of the new Turkish Republic and recognizing it as the successor of the Ottoman Empire. The treaty also demilitarizes the Daradanelles, opening the Turkish Straits to unrestricted civilian and military traffic, under the supervision of the International Straits Commission of the League of Nations.
On 27 August 1923 the Italian General Enrico Tellini was ambushed and assassinated on the Greek border while heading a commission to resolve a boundary dispute between Greece and Albania. Two days later the Italian government sent an ultimatum to Greece demanding an apology, a 50 million lire indemnity, and a full inquiry into the matter under Italian supervision. When the Greeks rejected these last two terms, Italian forces bombarded and occupied the Greek island of Corfu on 31 August. Although Greece appealed to the League of Nations, it achieved little in the face of Italian and French opposition and was eventually forced to accept most of Italy's demands in return for the evacuation of Corfu.