Europe 2014: Crimean Crisis

Main Events

29 Jul 2011 Syrian Civil War

The 2003-11 Iraq War had caused 1.5 million refugees to enter Syria. This, in addition to a severe drought in the Syrian countryside, dramatically increased public disapproval of President Bashar al-Assad. Protests against Assad inspired by the Arab Spring were violently suppressed until several military officers defected to form the Free Syrian Army, officially igniting civil wikipedia

15 Sep–20 Oct 2011 Battle of Sirte

The National Liberation Army attacked the last remnants of the Libyan Army still loyal to dictator Muammar Gaddafi in his hometown and designated capital of Sirte. After a month of fighting, the NLA finally broke through and captured the city. Gaddafi, already wounded, was captured and killed as he attempted to flee, bringing the Libyan Civil War to an wikipedia

1 Jul 2013 2013 enlargement of EU

In 2003 Croatia applied to join the European Union and in late 2004 the EU set 17 March 2005 as the beginning of membership negotiations. Progress was complicated by the Croatia-Slovenia border disagreement, but eventually Croatia signed the Treaty of Accession on 9 December 2011. After 66% of voter approval in a referendum on accession the following year, Croatia acceded to the European Union as its 28th member state on 1 July wikipedia

30 Dec 2013–25 Jun 2014 Anbar campaign

The Iraqi government’s arrest of Sunni MP Ahmed al-Alwani, part of its crackdown on tribal militias, led to conflict with his relatives from the Dulaim tribe in Anbar province. When the Iraqi Army withdrew to cool the situation on 31 December, tribal militants took over in Fallujah, Karma, and much of Ramadi. They were soon joined by militants from Daesh (the Islamic State of Iraq and al-Sham, or ISIL), who allied with some of the Dulaimi tribal wikipedia

18–23 Feb 2014 Euromaidan Revolution

In February 2010 pro-Russian Prime Minister Victor Yanukovych was elected to power in Ukraine and imprisoned pro-Western former Prime Minster Yulia Tymoshenko. When Yanukovych announced he would sign an association agreement with the European Union—which would have provided Ukraine with funds in return for liberalizing reforms—but then backed down at the last moment in favor of a Russian loan, he sparked a wave of protests called the Euromaidan movement in November 2013. Ukrainian security forces cracked down on the protesters, but this only exacerbated the situation. In February the protests turned to revolution and Yanukovych was forced to flee to wikipedia

27 Feb 2014 Crimean Crisis

Just days after pro-Russian Ukrainian Prime Minister Viktor Yanukovych was forced from office by the Euromaidan revolution, unmarked Russian troops (“Little Green Men”) began seizing control of posts across the Autonomous Republic of Crimea, Ukraine. Crimea, which had formerly been a Russian territory, had a large Russian population, and was home to the important Russian-leased naval base at Sevastopol, was quickly wikipedia

18 Mar 2014 Accession of Crimea to Russia

Following its occupation by Russia, the Crimean parliament and Sevastopol’s city council voted in favor of seceding from Ukraine and joining Russia. Following a referendum, on 17 March Crimea declared its independence as the Republic of Crimea and was annexed by the Russian Federation the following day. Sevastopol was annexed separately, but at the same time, as the Federal City of wikipedia