Europe 1849: Battle of Novara
Revolutionary feeling was still strong in the Italian states, prompting the Pope to flee Rome in November and leading to republics being declared in Rome and Tuscany in February. However the tide was turning. In March Sardinia renounced its truce with Austria but was swiftly defeated at the Battle of Novara and forced to come to terms, while at the same time Naples began its reconquest of the breakaway Kingdom of Sicily.
5 Jan 1849 Austrians capture Buda-Pest▲
After victory over the Hungarian rebels at the Battle of Mor, forces of the Austrian Empire captured the abandoned Hungarian capital of Buda and neighboring Pest.
9 Feb 1849 Roman Republic (19th Century)▲
The Constituent Assembly in Rome, in what had been the Papal States, proclaimed the Roman Republic.
18 Feb 1849 Tuscan Republic▲
On 18 February 1849, the Tuscan Republic was proclaimed in Florence, with Francesco Domenico Guerrazzi appointed as dictator. The same day, Duke Leopold II fled to Gaeta.
4–7 Mar 1849 March Constitution of Austria▲
Count von Warthausen, the Minister of Interior of the Austrian Empire, declared the March Constitution, reclaiming Habsburg power after the concessions of 1848, reducing the rights of the Empire's non-German population, and revoking the April Laws in Hungary.
12 Mar 1849 Sardinia breaks truce with Austria▲
Charles Albert, King of Sardinia, renounced the armistice with the Austrian Empire and reignited the First Italian War of Independence.
19 Mar 1849 Naples resumes war in Sicily▲
The Kingdom of the Two Sicilies (Naples) ended its armistice with the breakaway Kingdom of Sicily, sending its army out from Messina.
22–23 Mar 1849 Battle of Novara▲
Forces of Austrian Empire, led by Field Marshal Joseph Radetzky von Radetz, defeated Sardinian forces at Novara, Piedmont, in the Kingdom of Sardinia.