Europe 1918: Collapse of the Central Powers
The Allied advances of August and September were too much for the Central Powers. Bulgaria accepted defeat on September 29, followed by the Ottoman Empire on October 30. Meanwhile Polish, Czech, and Hungarian populations began to break away from Austria-Hungary, while Germany negotiated an armistice with the Americans.
29 Sep 1918 Armistice of Salonica▲
After requesting a ceasefire on 24 September, the Bulgarian government signs the Armistice of Salonica (a.k.a. Thessalonica) with the Allied Powers, represented by French General Louis Franchet d’Espérey, in Thessaloniki, Greece. The armistice ends Bulgaria’s participation in World War I on the side of the Central Powers effective as of noon on 30 September.
17 Oct 1918 First Czechoslovak Republic▲
Czech republic proclaimed
17 Oct 1918 Hungarian parliament independent under crown figurehead▲
Hungarian parliament independent under crown figurehead
24 Oct 1918 Polish Independence Day▲
Poles at Cracow break with Austria-Hungary
24 Oct–3 Nov 1918 Battle of Vittorio Veneto▲
Battle of Vittorio Veneto