Europe 1942: Failure of Winter Storm
Convinced that the Sixth Army could still be supplied by air, Hitler had ordered the troops in Stalingrad to hold their ground. The Germans then mounted a counterattack - Operation Winter Storm - to break through the Soviet lines and relieve the encircled army. However, the attempt failed and by the end of December Soviet offensives along the Caucasus front had sealed the Sixth Army's fate.
27 Nov 1942 Scuttling of the French fleet in Toulon▲
Under orders from Vichy French Secretary of the Navy, Admiral Gabriel Auphan, the French fleet in Toulon is scuttled in order to avoid capture by Nazi German forces. Three battleships, seven cruisers, 15 destroyers, and numerous smaller craft are sunk.
12–23 Dec 1942 Operation Winter Storm▲
German Fourth Panzer Army and Panzer Group Hollidt, led by Generalfeldmarschall Erich von Manstein attempt to break through Soviet lines to relieve the encircled Sixth Army at Stalingrad. However the relief effort makes slow progress and, after heavy losses, is forced to withdraw.
12 Dec 1942–18 Feb 1943 Operation Little Saturn▲
To exploit the success of Operation Uranus over Nazi Germany, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics mounted Operation Little Saturn, an attack on German positions in eastern Ukraine and northern Caucasus. The offensive succeeded in driving back the overstretched German forces, but caused the Soviets to overextend themselves in turn.