Europe 1859: Unification of Central Italy
The Second Italian War of Independence was officially ended at Treaty of Zurich, which gave Lombardy to Sardinia. A further clause insisted on the restoration of the rulers of central Italy but the rebellious central Italian states instead opted to unite under Sardinian rule.
10 Nov 1859 Treaty of Zürich▲
In November 1859 representatives of the Austrian Empire, the French Empire, and the Kingdom of Sardinia signed three peace treaties in Zürich, Switzerland, bringing a formal end to the Second Italian War of Independence. In the first treaty France and Austria reaffirmed the terms of the Armistice of Villafranca, re-established peace with each other, and ceded Lombardy to France. A second treaty then ceded Lombardy from France to Sardinia, while the third treaty re-established peace between Austria and Sardinia.
30 Nov 1859 Annexation of Lombardy▲
In November 1859, in accordance with the Treaty of Zürich, the Austrian Empire ceded Lombardy to the French Empire, which in turn ceded it to the Kingdom of Sardinia. Having received Lombardy, Sardinia annexed it at the end of the month.
8 Dec 1859 United Provinces of Central Italy▲
On 30 November 1859 the revolutionary governments of Modena, Parma, and the Legation of Romagna united under the governorship of Carlo Farini to form the Royal Government of Emilia (later the Royal Provinces of Emilia). This newly created state in turn joined with Tuscany early the following month, establishing the United Provinces of Central Italy. With the consent of the representatives of these territories, King Victor Emanuel II of Sardinia appointed Carlo Bon Compagni di Mombello as their governor-general on 21 December.