Political map of Europe & the Mediterranean 17 May 1912 (Italo-Turkish War): In October 1911 Italy invaded the Ottoman provinces in North Africa (Italo-Turkish War). The Italians quickly conquered the coastal cities but found it harder to defeat the Arab and Ottoman forces in the interior, despite the first use of airplanes in warfare. In May 1912, they occupied the Dodecanese (Dodecanese) in an attempt to force the Ottomans to accept defeat.