Political map of Europe & the Mediterranean 23 April 1913 (First Balkan War): Seeing how weak the Ottoman Empire was in its fight against Italy (Italo-Turkish War), an alliance of Balkan states (Balkan League) launched an invasion of Ottoman Europe (First Balkan War) in October 1912. The Ottomans immediately made peace with Italy, but still lost almost all of their European possessions (Treaty of London, 1913).