Sub-Saharan Africa 1904: Herero Wars
German South West Africa was better suited for white settlement than the other German African possessions, leading to tensions between land-hungry colonists and the indigenous peoples. In 1904 the Herero and Nama rose in revolt, only to be crushed in a German campaign of extermination which saw the deaths of tens of thousands of Africans.
29 Dec 1903 Reorganization of French Congo▲
In 1903 the French Congo and Dependencies was redefined as French Congo—a federation of French possessions. At the outset of federation, these possessions consisted of the colonies of Gabon and Middle Congo (formerly called French Congo), the territory of Ubangi Shari, and the military territory of Chad. The federation was overseen by the Commissioner-General—from 1908 Governor-General—of French Congo.
12 Jan 1904–? ?? 1908 Herero Revolt▲
In January 1904 Herero people led by Samuel Maharero mounted an uprising against German colonization and land-confiscation in South West Africa, only to be conclusively defeated at the Battle of Waterberg in August. In reprisal, General Lothar von Trotha ordered all male Herero to be killed and the women and children driven into the desert. Although this order was suspended by the end of the year, the surviving Herero were rounded into concentration camps or put to forced labor. By the time the last Herero rebels surrendered in 1908, tens of thousands had died either to violence or malnutrition.
8 Apr 1904 Entente Cordiale▲
The United Kingdom and the French Republic signed the Entente Cordiale in London, improving Anglo-French relations by settling colonial differences: Britain was given dominance in Egypt and France in Morocco; disputes in West Africa were settled in France’s favor; France renounced rights to fisheries in Newfoundland; and Siam was to be divided into zones of influence.