Sub-Saharan Africa 1901: Lake Chad Rendezvous
In 1899 the Nubian warlord Rabih az-Zubayr had antagonized the French by hanging one of their explorers. After Rabih destroyed their punitive expedition, the French sent three columns—one from each of their main African bases (Congo, Algeria, and Senegal)—against his empire around Lake Chad. This time the French were successful: linking up their African empire, killing Rabih, and chasing his son, Fadl-Allah, across the German-claimed north of Kamerun into British-claimed Northern Nigeria.
5 Sep 1900 French Chad▲
Five months after their defeat of Rabih az-Zubayr at Kousséri and three months after founding Fort-Lamy, the French established the Military Territory of the Lands and Protectorates of Chad. The territory’s capital was set as Fort-Lamy and Émile Gentil was appointed as the first governor. Northern Kamerun effectively remained in the territory’s sphere until April 1902, when the French handed Dikwa over to the Germans.
25 Oct 1900–31 May 1902 Guerrilla Phase of Boer War▲
By October 1900 the British were in occupation of all the major towns of the Orange Free State and the South African Republic, annexing the latter as the colony of Transvaal. However, instead of surrendering, the remaining Boer forces reverted to guerrilla warfare, conducting raids against railways and lightly guarded positions. The British responded to these actions by building blockhouses along their supply routes, destroying Boer farms and homesteads, and interning Boer and African civilians in concentration camps. Although these tactics eventually gave the British victory, they contributed greatly to global condemnation of the Second Boer War.
13 Feb–24 Aug 1901 First Dervish Expedition▲
In February 1901 “Mad Mullah” Mohammed Abdullah Hassan led attacks on British-friendly tribes in the interior of the Somaliland Protectorate, killing many and driving off their livestock. Although the British responded quickly, the infantry available were unable to catch Hassan or his Dervishes. Better equipped expeditions were mounted in May and June; these defeated the Dervishes in a number of encounters and recovered much of the stolen livestock. After further defeats on the Sorl Plain in July and August, Hassan fled to Galkayo in Italian territory.
–23 Aug 1901 France against Fadl-Allah▲
Following the defeat and death of Rabih az-Zubayr in April 1900, his son, Fadl-Allah, fled with 5,000 troops to Gujba in British-claimed Northern Nigeria. Emboldened by British motions to recognize him as ruler of Borno, Fadl-Allah attacked Dikwa in German-claimed northern Kamerun in 1901 and ousted the French-backed Abubakar Garbai. France quickly intervened, retaking Dikwa and marching on to Gujba, where they fought and killed Fadl-Allah on 23 August. Concerned by the French incursion, Britain and Germany secured their northern frontiers by signing treaties with the Adamawa Emirate—until then a vassal of Sokoto—in early September.