North America 1895: Nicaragua and Venezuela Crises
In 1894 Nicaragua annexed the Mosquito Reserve, violating a previous treaty with Britain. In response the British occupied Corinto in an attempt to pressure Nicaragua to pay an indemnity. Meanwhile, Britain was also confronting Venezuela over its border with Guiana. Both disputes angered the United States, which insisted on its right to act as arbitrator under the Monroe Doctrine, and eventually the British backed down.
20 Nov 1894 Annexation of Mosquito Reserve▲
In February 1894, Nicaragua occupied Bluefields in the Mosquito Reserve, deposing Miskito ruler Robert Henry Clarence and prompting the Miskito people to appeal for British protection. The British sent a warship to the coast, but the real intervention came on 6 July when the United States landed Marines and bluejackets from the USS Columbia and Marblehead to protect its business interests. The Nicaraguans returned after the US withdrawal on 7 August, abolishing the reservation and incorporating the territory into Nicaragua.
22 Feb 1895–1 Jan 1896 Venezuela Crisis▲
In response to the encroachment of British settlers into territory disputed between British Guiana and Venezuela, US President Grover Cleveland signed United States House of Representatives Resolution 252 into law on 22 February 1895. Considering British actions a violation of the Monroe Doctrine, the bill recommended Venezuela and Britain settle their dispute over the Guayana Esequiba by arbitration. After some hesitation, the British backed down and the United States Commission on the Boundary Between Venezuela and British Guiana was established on 1 January 1896.
24 Feb 1895 Cuban War of Independence▲
Cuba began its war of independence against Spain.
27 Apr–15 May 1895 Nicaragua Crisis▲
A Royal Navy squadron under flagship HMS Royal Arthur landed 400 British marines at the Nicaraguan Pacific port of Corinto in reaction to Nicaragua’s refusal to pay an indemnity for its annexation of the Mosquito Reserve. Nicaragua withdrew its garrison, allowing the British to occupy the town without conflict, but also cut telegraph wires and rejected Britain’s ultimatum. The United States, considering the action a violation of the Clayton-Bulwer Treaty, pressured the British to withdraw on 15 May without adequate compensation.