North America 1837: Canadian Rebellions
In the north, the British colonies of Upper and Lower Canada were growing in population but still found themselves dominated by local trading oligarchies. Increasing dissatisfaction led to calls for government reform and rebellions in 1837. Although the first revolts were quickly suppressed, many rebels fled to the US border and continued the fight from there.
14 May 1836 Treaties of Velasco▲
General Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna of the Mexican Republic and Interim President David G. Burnet of the Republic of Texas signed two treaties at Velasco, Texas, detailing the end of hostilities between the two belligerents and setting the southern boundary of Texas at the Rio Grande. However, neither treaty was ratified by the Mexican government, as Santa Anna was at the time a prisoner of Texas.
19 May 1836 Fort Parker massacre▲
At least a hundred American Indians, including Comanche, Kiowa, Caddo, and Wichita, raided Fort Parker, Republic of Texas, killing five men and capturing two women and three children. This was one of the first of a series of large scale Comanche raids which would target Texas and Mexico over the following two decades.
15 Jun 1836 Statehood for Arkansas▲
Arkansas Territory, United States of America, was admitted to the Union as the 25th state, Arkansas. It continued to dispute Miller County with the Republic of Texas and the Indian Territory, but was not backed by the US in this claim.
4 Jul 1836 Formation of Wisconsin Territory▲
The Wisconsin Territory was split off from the Michigan Territory, United States of America. As an inducement to give up its claim over the Toledo Strip to Ohio, the Upper Peninsula was assigned to Michigan Territory, giving it the present-day borders of Michigan.
6 Nov 1836–? Aug 1838 Alvarado’s Rebellion▲
Juan Bautista Alvarado, president of Alta California’s legislature, seized control of Monterey and proclaimed California’s independence from the Mexican Republic. He was supported by federalist Californios and American merchants, particularly Isaac Graham, and vowed to rejoin Mexico after the fall of the Centralist government. In 1838 Alvarado marched south and successfully conquered the rest of Alta California, pushing Mexico City to confirm him as governor. Alvarado promptly accepted this role, ending the rebellion.
? Jan 1837–? Nov 1843 Seminole removal▲
After United States forces in Florida Territory killed or captured numerous Seminole in a string of actions, some Seminole chiefs arranged a truce with Commanding General Thomas Jesup. In March the chiefs agreed to relocation to the west, with more Seminole arriving in the Army camps to surrender. However, tensions in the camps encouraged many to escape before transportation and the war resumed, disrupting relocation for another five years.
26 Jan 1837 Statehood for Michigan▲
In 1835, the Territory of Michigan approved a constitution for statehood. The process was delayed for over a year due to Michigan’s dispute with Ohio over the Toledo Strip, which escalated to a military standoff before Congress intervened and awarded the Strip to Ohio. Michigan then became a US State on 26 January 1837.
3 Mar 1837 US recognition of Texas▲
The United States of America recognized the independence of the Republic of Texas from Mexico, with US President Andrew Jackson nominating Alcee La Branche as Minister to Texas.
6 Nov–14 Dec 1837 Lower Canada Rebellion▲
British authorities in the colony of Lower Canada attempted to arrest 26 members of the Patriote movement, triggering rebellion in the countryside. Despite a Patriote victory at Saint-Denis, the rebels were defeated in further encounters and fled to the United States.
4–13 Dec 1837 Upper Canada Rebellion▲
Encouraged by the Lower Canada Rebellion, rebels in the British colony of Upper Canada led by William Lyon Mackenzie marched on Toronto from Newmarket but were dispersed by the British at Montgomery’s Tavern. Meanwhile, another group of rebels under Charles Duncombe attempted to reach Toronto from the settlement of London but were defeated en route at Hamilton.