North America 1840: Comanche Wars
The Comanche had taken advantage of Mexican weakness to gain control of the trade routes crossing the southern Great Plains in the 1830s. By 1836 their 'empire', Comancheria, was powerful enough to mount raids deep into Mexico and Texas. When the Texians betrayed them in 1840, the Comanche invaded, crossing the Republic and destroying the port of Linnville. Eventually, however, disease would decimate the tribes, leading to the collapse of Comanche power in the 1850s.
29 Jan 1840 Reconquest of Los Altos▲
Guatemalan General Rafael Carrera entered Quetzaltenango, capital of the breakaway State of Los Altos, and arrested the chief of state, Marcelo Molina.
12 Feb–16 Jun 1840 Yucatán Revolt▲
The federal army of Yucatán, under Captain Santiago Iman, revolted against the centralist government of the Mexican Republic, capturing the city of Valladolid and demanding the reestablishment of the Mexican Constitution of 1824. Over the following months, Yucatecan Federalists seized control of all Yucatan and Campeche.
19 Mar 1840 Council House Fight▲
A 65-member Comanche delegation met under truce with Texian officials in San Antonio, Republic of Texas, to negotiate peace and the release of Texian and Mexican captives held by the Comanche. During the meeting, the Texians threatened to make hostages of the Comanche delegates until the captives are returned, resulting in a clash in which 35 Comanche and 7 Texians were killed. This incident destroyed any trust the Comanche had in Texas, prompting them to kill the captives the Texians sought and mount the Great Raid of 1840.
24–25 Mar 1840 Battle of Santa Rita de Morelos▲
Insurgents of the Republic of Rio Grande under the command of General Antonio Canales were defeated by forces of the Mexican Republic under General Mariano Arista at Morelos, Coahuila. After the battle, Canales and the remaining rebels fled to San Antonio, Republic of Texas.
1 Jun–25 Oct 1840 Battle of Saltillo▲
General Antonio Canales arrived in San Patricio, Republic of Texas, where supporters of the Republic of the Rio Grande, including Texian and American Indian volunteers, had been gathering for a return to Mexico. In late June, Canales and his forces pushed south, crossing the Rio Grande and seizing Ciudad Victoria, capital of the state of Tamaulipas. They then attempted to capture Saltillo, Coahuila, but were defeated by the Mexican Army under General Rafael Vasquez.
6–12 Aug 1840 Great Raid of 1840▲
Chief Buffalo Hump led at least 400 Comanche warriors, accompanied by wives and boys, on a raid across the Republic of Texas. The war party first attacked the town of Victoria before riding on to the Gulf of Mexico on the 8th, where they pillaged and destroyed the port of Linnville. After this they retired, fighting a brief engagement with Texas Rangers at Plum Creek.