North America 1842: Texas Incursions
Conflict with the Comanche did not stop Texas from pursuing its vast territorial claims against Mexico. In 1841 the Texians mounted an expedition to seize distant Santa Fe, part of their claim to New Mexico, only for it to be captured on arrival. In retaliation the Mexicans attempted to retake Texas, but got little further than San Antonio before being repelled.
6 Nov 1840 End of Republic of the Rio Grande▲
At a meeting between General Antonio Canales of the separatist Republic of the Rio Grande and General Mariano Arista of the Mexican Republic, Canales agreed to abandon the rebellion in return for the position of brigadier general in the Mexican Army. Other rebel leaders surrendered on the same day, ending the breakaway republic.
2 Feb 1841 End of Union of Central America▲
El Salvador, the last remaining state adhering to the Federal Republic of Central America, proclaimed itself a republic and thereby officially ended the union.
10 Feb 1841 Province of Canada▲
In accordance with the Act of Union 1840, the British colonies of Upper and Lower Canada merged to form United Province of Canada. The colony of Upper Canada became the new region of Canada East, while Lower Canada became Canada West. The first capital was Kingston (1841-1844), but would be changed six times before settling on Ottawa in 1866.
19 Jun–? Sep 1841 Texan Santa Fe Expedition▲
Texas President Mirabeau Lamar sent a military-commercial expedition to take Santa Fe and thereby bolster Texas's claim to New Mexico. The expedition set out from Kenney's Fort near Austin, arriving in New Mexico in mid-September after numerous mishaps, largely caused by poor preparation. Expecting to be supported by the local population, they were instead quickly captured by the Mexican Army under Governor Manuel Armijo.
8 Aug–29 Sep 1841 Santa Anna's 1841 coup▲
In a prearranged coup against Mexican President Anastasio Bustamante, Brigadier General Mariano Paredes y Arrillaga revolted in Guadalajara and marched on the capital, being joined en route by defecting generals in Guanajuato and Queretaro. Meanwhile Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna joined the revolt at Veracrúz, with more generals mutinying in Mexico City. Despite fighting back with 2000 loyal troops, Bustamante was driven from the capital and forced to resign.
7–9 Nov 1841 Creole case▲
The brig Creole, owned by Johnson and Eperson of Richmond, Virginia, was transporting 135 slaves for sale in New Orleans, when Madison Washington and eighteen other male slaves rebelled. The slaves seized control of the ship and redirected it to Nassau, in the Bahamas in the British West Indies. Upon arrival, they were considered free by British law, creating tensions between Britain and the US.
12 Dec 1841 Sale of Fort Ross▲
The Russian-American Company sold the Russian settlement of Fort Ross, in present-day California, to John Sutter, a Mexican citizen of Swiss origin, for $30,000.
? Aug–21 Sep 1842 Woll Expedition▲
Some 1500 Mexican troops under General Adrián Woll invaded the Republic of Texas, capturing San Antonio on September 11. In response, about 220 Texian militia rallied under Colonel Matthew Caldwell, defeating the invaders at Salado Creek and chasing Woll's forces from the country.
14 Aug 1842 End of Second Seminole War▲
After meeting with the Seminole chiefs and offering them a choice of moving to the Indian territory in the west or to the designated Seminole reservation in southwest Florida Territory, United States Colonel William Jenkins Worth declared the Second Seminole War to be at an end. Despite this, small scale attacks would continue into November 1842, when the remaining Seminole in northern Florida were captured and sent west.
11 Sep 1842 Mexican annexation of Soconusco▲
The state of Soconusco, disputed between the Mexican Republic and Guatemala, was formally annexed to Mexico.