North America 1848: Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
The fall of Mexico City spelled the end of the Mexican-American War. At the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, the US agreed to pay Mexico $15 million in return for Mexican acceptance of the annexation of Texas, California and New Mexico.
15 Sep 1847 Santa Anna's resignation▲
Having lost Mexico City to United States forces, Mexican President Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna resigned the presidency in favor of Chief Justice Manuel de la Peña y Peña. He lost his military command the following month, then fled the country for exile in Kingston, Jamaica.
29 Nov 1847–1855 Cayuse War▲
Missionary Marcus Whitman, his wife and 11 others were murdered by a party of Cayuse and Umatilla at Waiilapu mission, Oregon Country, leading to the Cayuse War. Eventually, the United States government prevailed, forcing the Cayuse to cede most of their tribal lands.
24 Jan 1848 Gold discovery at Sutter's Mill▲
James W. Marshall found several flakes of gold in the tailrace of a lumber mill he is building for pioneer John Sutter in Coloma, California, on the banks of the South Fork American River. Sutter attempted to keep the news secret, but rumors soon spread to the local newspapers.
2 Feb 1848 Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo▲
The United States of America, represented by Nicholas Trist, and the Mexican Republic, represented by General Jose Joaquin de Herrera, signed the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, officially entitled the Treaty of Peace, Friendship, Limits and Settlement between the United States of America and the Mexican Republic, in the Villa de Guadalupe Hidalgo, Mexico. The treaty effectively ceded Alta California and Santa Fe de Nuevo Mexico to the US and recognized the US annexation of Texas.