North America 1857: Filibuster War
For many US citizens, the Mexican-American War had demonstrated that conquering Latin America was both easy and the natural destiny of the United States. In the 1850s numerous adventurers tried their luck by mounting expeditions against Mexico and Central America, some hoping to perpetuate slavery by expanding the slave states. The most successful of these “filibusters” was William Walker, who gained control of Nicaragua in 1855 and held it for more than year before being driven out by Costa Rica and its allies.
20 Dec 1855-8 May 1858 Third Seminole War▲
The Seminole retaliated against settler encroachment in southwest Florida, United States of America, massacring an army patrol near Fort Myers and mounting raids on settlers throughout the region. Eventually, army reinforcements forced them to surrender, and most of the remaining Seminole were relocated to the Indian Territory (Oklahoma).
1 Mar 1856-1 May 1857 Filibuster War▲
Allied Armies of Central America, led by Republic of Costa Rica, invaded the Republic of Nicaragua, which had fallen under the control of William Walker and his filibusters. Walker eventually surrendered to Captain Charles Davis of the US Navy, departing the country with 16 officers and promising never to return to Central America.
6 Mar 1857 Dred Scott case▲
In the case of Dred Scott vs. Sandford, the United States Supreme Court held that African Americans couldn’t be American citizens and therefore couldn’t sue in federal court; and that the federal government had no power to regulate slavery in the federal territories acquired after the creation of the United States of America.
24 Mar-7 Apr 1857 Henry Crabb’s Sonora expedition▲
Former California State Senator Henry Crabb and his band of filibusters intervened in Sonora, Mexican Republic after an alleged deal with local governor Ignacio Pesqueira fell through. Crabb defeated local forces near Caborca, but was captured and executed a few days later when Mexican reinforcements arrived.