North America 1860: Secession of South Carolina
By 1860, the rift between the slave states of the southern United States and the free states of the north was almost irreconcilable. When Abraham Lincoln of the anti-slavery Republican Party was elected president in spite of almost universal southern opposition, many southerners decided there was no future in the Union. In December, South Carolina became the first state to act by formally announcing its secession.
24 Oct 1859 Jefferson Territory▲
Settlers in western Kansas Territory approved the formation of the Provisional Government of the Territory of Jefferson, although this decision would never be legally recognized by the United States.
28 Nov 1859 Treaty of Comayagua▲
Great Britain agreed to cede the Bay Islands and the northern portion of Mosquito Coast to Honduras.
28 Jan 1860 Treaty of Managua▲
Great Britain agreed to recognize Nicaraguan sovereignty over the Mosquito Coast.
8 Feb–21 Mar 1860 Second siege of Veracruz fails▲
Mexican Conservative forces under Miguel Miramon attempted to capture Veracruz but had to withdraw when they ran out of ammunition.
6 Mar 1860 Battle of Anton Lizardo▲
United States naval forces attacked and captured two Mexican Conservative ships under Tomas Marin off Anton Lizardo, Mexico, on the grounds that the Mexican Liberal government had declared Marin a pirate.
10 Aug 1860 Battle of Silao▲
Mexican Liberal troops overtook and defeated the retreating Mexican Conservative forces under Miguel Miramon at Silao, Guanajuato.
6 Nov 1860 1860 US Presidential Election▲
By 1860, the issue of slavery had divided the ruling Democratic Party, and split the presidential vote between four major candidates. As a result, former Illinois Representative Abraham Lincoln of the anti-slavery Republican Party secured a plurality in the popular vote and a majority of electoral votes in that year's election.
20 Dec 1860 Secession of South Carolina▲
On 9 November 1860 the South Carolina General Assembly passed a "Resolution to Call the Election of Abraham Lincoln as U.S. President a Hostile Act" and stated its intention to declare secession from the United States. The following month, on 20 December, South Carolina declared its secession from the Union as the "Republic of South Carolina", becoming the first of the slave states to secede.