North America 1523: Spanish Consolidation in Mexico
Cortés’ capture of Tenochtitlan (1521) brought an end to the Aztec Empire and made Spain the dominant power in Mexico. Over the next years Cortés sent out Spanish expeditions, utilizing Tlaxcalan manpower, to assert his authority over Metztitlan, Tututepec, the Purépecha Empire, the Kingdom of Colliman, and other states.
1522?–1532 Guamá’s War▲
In the early 1520s a number of indigenous uprisings broke out against Spanish rule in Cuba. Most notable among them was the Taíno chief Guamá’s rebellion in the mountains near Baracoa, in the southeast. Guamá remained at large for about ten years, until his brother Oliguama murdered him in his sleep in 1532.
21 Jan 1522–25 Jun 1523 González Dávila’s expedition▲
In 1522, backed by King Charles of Spain, González Dávila and Andrés Niño departed from the Pearl Islands, Panama, to explore the lands to the northwest. While Niño repaired their leaking ships and then sailed along the coast, González Dávila disembarked with 100 men to explore Costa Rica and eventually discover Lake Nicaragua. Driven back by native warriors, he was compelled to rejoin Niño, and together they returned to Panama in June 1523.
3 Mar–24 Apr 1522 Conquest of Tututepec▲
In 1522 Cortés’ lieutenant, Pedro de Alvarado, advanced into Oaxaca, defeating the warriors of Tututepec in early March and capturing and executing their leader. With news arriving of the defeat of the Aztecs and now Tututepec, Tehuantepec surrendered to Alvarado in April.
1522 Conquest of Metztitlan▲
In 1522, following the fall of Tenochtitlan, Cortés sent Tlaxcalan warriors under the command of a Spanish captain to conquer the former Aztec vassal state of Metztitlan. Metztitlan fell quickly, offering little effective resistance.
17–? Jul 1522 Capitulation of Michoacán▲
In February 1522 a Spanish soldier accidentally stumbled upon the Purépecha village of Tajimaroa. Alerted by this, and a number of Spanish–Purépecha encounters which followed, Cortés sent in a force of 200 Spaniards and numerous Tlaxcalans under Cristobal de Olid. Olid swiftly captured the Purépecha Cazonci, Tangaxuán II, but kept him in power as a Spanish vassal.
? Nov 1522–25 Jul 1523 Conquest of Colima▲
In autumn of 1521 Cortés learned of the existence of the Kingdom of Colliman and sent a mission of three Spaniards there, who were rebuffed. The next year Cristóbal de Olid marched into the neighboring Purépecha Empire, sending Juan Rodríguez de Villafuerte and half of his forces to invade Colliman but was defeated and forced to flee. A second expedition under Gonzalo de Sandoval arrived at the end of March 1523, defeated and possibly killed King Colimotl, and founded the town of Colima in July.