North America 1836: Texas Revolution
By the 1830s the Mexican border region of Texas had become dominated by settlers from the neighboring US. When, in 1835, Mexican President Santa Anna revoked the 1824 Constitution, Texas went into rebellion, declaring its independence the following year. Santa Anna personally led the offensive to crush the rebels, only to be defeated and captured at San Jacinto.
29 Dec 1835–17 Jun 1838 Cherokee removal▲
Officials of the United States government and representatives of a minority of the Cherokee signed the Treaty of New Echota in New Echota, Georgia. The treaty established terms under which the entire Cherokee Nation ceded its territory in Georgia, Alabama, Tennessee, and North Carolina and moved west to the Indian Territory. Although it was neither approved by the Cherokee National Council nor signed by Principal Chief John Ross, the treaty was ratified by the US Senate on 23 May 1836, leading to the forcible removal of the Cherokee over the following two years.
23 Feb–6 Mar 1836 Battle of the Alamo▲
1,500 troops of the Mexican Republic, led by President General Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna, arrived outside the Alamo Mission, near San Antonio de Bexar in the secessionist region of Texas. Facing them were a garrison of some 200 Texians led by William Travis and James Bowie. After a 13-day siege, the Mexicans launched an early morning assault, killing all of the defenders but suffering over 400 casualties themselves.
2 Mar 1836 Texas Declaration of Independence▲
Texan revolutionaries meeting at Washington-on-the-Brazos adopted the Texas Declaration of Independence—the formal declaration of independence of the Republic of Texas from Mexico. The document was formally signed the following day by sixty men, of whom 57 were immigrants from the United States of America.
27 Mar 1836 Goliad Massacre▲
Under orders from General Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna, President of the Mexican Republic, Lt. Colonel Jose Nicolas de la Portilla executed 342 captured soldiers of the secessionist Republic of Texas, including their commander, James Fannin. Most of these men had voted to surrender to the Mexicans a week earlier in return for leniency.
21 Apr 1836 Battle of San Jacinto▲
A 910-man Texian Army led by General Sam Houston engaged and defeated 1,360 Mexican troops under President General Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna in an 18 minute battle. About 630 Mexicans were killed and 730 captured for just nine Texian dead. Santa Anna was captured the following day and held as a prisoner of war.