North America 1863: French Intervention in Mexico

Political map of North America & the Caribbean on 22 Mar 1863 (American Civil War: French Intervention in Mexico), showing the following events: Emancipation Proclamation; Arizona Territory; Idaho Territory; Siege of Puebla.

Bankrupt after its Reform War, Mexico had suspended its debt repayments in 1861, prompting Spain, France and Britain to occupy Veracruz. However when it became apparent that the French Emperor Napoleon III was really using the intervention as an excuse to conquer Mexico, the Spanish and British withdrew, leaving the French to continue the invasion on their own.

Main Events

1 Jan 1863 Emancipation Proclamation

The American Civil War further complicated the legal status of slaves in the Confederacy. Because the Union Army risked inadvertently recognizing the Confederacy by appropriating slaves as contraband, President Abraham Lincoln circumvented the issue by proclaiming the freedom of slaves in the ten states of the wikipedia

24 Feb 1863 Arizona Territory

United States split the Arizona Territory from the New Mexico Territory. Originally proposed in 1856 by the people of Tucson, Congress split the territory between east-west rather than north-south to avoid legitimizing the former Confederate Territory of wikipedia

4 Mar 1863 Idaho Territory

The United States formed the Idaho Territory from parts of the Washington, Dakota and Nebraska wikipedia

15 Mar–17 May 1863 Siege of Puebla

French forces besieged and captured Puebla, wikipedia