North America 1921: Washington Naval Conference
Following the War, the US and Japan began expanding and modernizing their fleets. To avoid an arms race between these countries and Britain, still the world’s biggest naval power, the US arranged the Washington Naval Conference, the world’s first disarmament conference. The participants agreed to limit their fleet sizes, maintain the status quo in the Pacific, and guarantee China’s independence, while Britain also ended its alliance with Japan.
1 Apr 1920 American Expeditionary Force Siberia▲
The last troops of American Expeditionary Force Siberia departed for United States on 1 April 1920.
13 Apr 1920 Obregón’s revolt▲
Álvaro Obregón led a revolt against Mexican President Venustiano Carranza.
7 May 1920 Carranza flees Mexico City▲
Mexican President Venustiano Carranza abandoned the capital on 7 May for Veracruz. He was assassinated en route in Puebla two weeks later on 21 May. On 1 June, Congress appointed Adolfo de la Huerta as interim President, with elections to be held on 26 October.
30 Nov 1920 End of Mexican Revolution▲
Following a successful military campaign, General Álvaro Obregón was inaugurated as President of Mexico, bringing an end to the Mexican Revolution.
20 Apr 1921 Thomson-Urrutia Treaty▲
The United States ratified the Thomson-Urrutia Treaty with Colombia. By the terms of the treaty, the US paid Colombia 25 million dollars in return for Colombia’s recognition of Panama’s independence. Although the agreement had been negotiated and signed by both countries on 6 April 1914 and ratified by Colombia on 9 June of that year, political opposition due to the imperialist nature of the deal and the advent of World War I meant that it was not until 1921 that a modified version of the treaty was ratified in the US. Colombia would ratify the revised version on 13 October 1921.
13 Jun 1921-4 Feb 1922 Republic of Central America▲
On 19 January 1921, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, and Honduras signed a Pact of Union in San José, Costa Rica, to form a second Federation of Central America. The Federation was declared at Tegucigalpa, Honduras, in June, by which time Costa Rica had rejected the pact. In October it was renamed as the Republic of Central America, but would only last a few more months. Guatemala left in January 1922, followed by El Salvador and Honduras early the next month.
12 Nov 1921-6 Feb 1922 Washington Naval Conference▲
The Washington Naval Conference was attended by the United States, Great Britain, Japan, France, Italy, China, Belgium, Netherlands, and Portugal. The parties agreed to limit fleet sizes, maintain the status quo in the Pacific, and guarantee China’s independence.