North America 1929: Wall Street Crash
Further measures to ensure world peace were made at the US and French sponsored Kellogg-Briand Pact in 1928. In the meantime, the world, and the US in particular, went through the unprecedented prosperity and liberalization of the Roaring Twenties. Both peace and prosperity would prove to be short-lived - in October 1929 the US stock market crashed, heralding the onset of the Great Depression.
6 Jan 1922 End of Sugar Intervention▲
The United States withdrew its forces from eastern Cuba, ending the Sugar Intervention.
2 Mar 1923 Halibut Treaty▲
Canadian Minister of Marine and Fisheries Ernest LaPointe and U.S. Secretary of State Charles Evans Hughes signed the Convention for the Preservation of the Halibut Fishery of the Northern Pacific Ocean, creating a fisheries commission to monitor halibut stocks. This was the first time Canada had negotiated a treaty independent of Britain and, when informed, the British asked to sign the treaty alongside Canada as had happened in the past. Canadian PM Mackenzie King successfully rejected the request, threatening to send independent representation to Washington, DC, if Britain persisted. This effectively marked the beginning of Canada’s control over its foreign policy—a right confirmed at the 1923 Imperial Conference seven months later.
30 Nov 1923–24 Mar 1924 De la Huerta’s uprising▲
In November 1923, Figueroa rebelled against the Mexican federal government in Guerrero; the following month, he was joined by other generals in other states as well as former Mexican President Adolfo de la Huerta. On 7 December, de la Huerta denounced President Alvaro Obregon, but—despite gaining the support of more than half the Mexican army—was defeated in Veracruz in January 1924. After more setbacks, de la Huerta fled to Florida and exile; in his later years, he would establish a singing academy in Los Angeles.
13 Jul 1924 US withdraws from Dominican Republic▲
The United States ended its occupation of the Dominican Republic.
13 Mar 1925 Hay-Quesada Treaty▲
The United States ratified the Hay-Quesada Treaty, recognizing Cuban sovereignty over the Isle of Pines.
2 May 1926–3 Feb 1933 US intervention in Nicaragua▲
Armed Nicaraguan Liberal exiles landed on the east coast of Nicaragua, capturing the port of Bluefields and escalating the state of civil war in the country. In response, the United States intervened several days later, with the cruiser USS Cleveland landing a contingent of troops sent to “protect American lives and property”. More US forces arrived in 1927 to defend the conservative government against Augusto Sandino’s Liberal rebels (soon to be known as the “Sandanistas”) and supervise elections in 1928. The US would eventually pull out of Nicaragua in 1932-33.
1 Mar 1927 Labrador settlement▲
The border between Labrador in the Dominion of Newfoundland, and the Province of Quebec in the Dominion of Canada was settled by a British Judicial Committee of the Privy Council. Rather than tightly follow the coast, as claimed by Quebec, the boundary was set to include most of the coastal watershed, with part of the southern stretch being defined by the 52nd parallel north.
27 Aug 1928 Kellogg-Briand Pact▲
The General Treaty for Renunciation of War as an Instrument of National Policy was signed in Paris by France, Germany and the United States, with most other nations signing over the following year.
24–29 Oct 1929 Wall Street Crash▲
Between opening on 24 October 1929 (“Black Thursday”) and close on 29 October (“Black Tuesday”), the Dow Jones Industrial Average dropped in value from 305.85 to 230.07 in the most devastating stock market crash in United States history. The crash would bring an abrupt end to the Roaring Twenties and signal the beginning of the Great Depression.