North America 1966: Operation Power Pack
Castro's success in Cuba helped inspire further revolts across Latin America. In April 1965, the Dominican Revolutionary Party overthrew the right-wing junta that controlled the Dominican Republic. Seeing this as part of a communist threat, the United States responded by sending in troops to prop up the old regime. By September, the revolution had been crushed and a peacekeeping force led by Brazil was in place, allowing the US to withdraw.
22 Nov 1963 Kennedy assassinated▲
United States President John F. Kennedy was fatally shot by a sniper while traveling through Dallas, Texas, in a presidential motorcade.
9–13 Jan 1964 Panama Riots▲
After a Panamanian flag was torn in a clash between pro-US Zonians and Panamanian nationalists, Panamanian crowds began rioting on the border between Panama City and the Canal Zone. The protesters overwhelmed the Canal Zone police, forcing the US Army to step in. After three days fighting, and the deaths of some 22 Panamanians and four US soldiers, order was restored. The incident would be a significant factor in the US return of the Canal Zone in 1977, with 9 January becoming memorialized as Martyr’s Day in Panama.
2 Aug 1964 Gulf of Tonkin incident▲
The US Navy destroyer USS Maddox engaged three North Vietnamese torpedo boats in the Gulf of Tonkin, after they reportedly pursued the destroyer and it fired warning shots in return. US President Lyndon Johnson would use the incident, together with another alleged attack—which may not even have involved North Vietnamese ships—in the Gulf of Tonkin on 4 August, to justify increased US involvement in the Vietnam War.
10 Aug 1964 Gulf of Tonkin Resolution▲
In response to the Gulf of Tonkin incident, United States President Lyndon Johnson pushed for greater powers to pursue the war in Vietnam. As a result, the US Congress passed the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution on 7 August 1964, with Johnson signing it into effect on 10 August. The resolution authorized the president to use conventional military force in Southeast Asia, allowing for the rapid escalation of US military involvement in the region.
24 Apr–3 Sep 1965 Dominican Civil War▲
The Dominican Revolutionary Party rose against the civilian junta in Dominican Republic, but was defeated when the United States intervened.
28 Apr–31 Aug 1965 Operation Power Pack▲
In “Operation Power Pack”, United States forces intervened in the Dominican Republic to restore order and prevent a communist takeover.
23 May 1965–21 Sep 1966 Inter-American Peace Force▲
Following the United States’s intervention in the Dominican Republic, the country was temporarily administered by the Inter-American Peace Force (IAPF), established by the Organization of American States. On 28 May 1965, as US troops began their withdrawal, Brazil took over leadership of the force, remaining in charge until September 1966.
26 May 1966 Guyana independent▲
British Guiana became independent from the United Kingdom as the Commonwealth Realm of Guyana. Its first Prime Minister would be Forbes Burnham, a nationalist who would remain in power until his death in 1985.