North America 1916: Pancho Villa Expedition
May 1915German submarine
sinks Lusitania with
angering US and
to stop unrestricted
The coalition that had deposed Huerta collapsed soon after taking Mexico City. A year of fighting followed, in which the once powerful general "Pancho" Villa was defeated and reduced to fighting a guerrilla campaign in the north. In 1916, he crossed the border and raided New Mexico. In response, the US sent a punitive expedition south under General Pershing in an ultimately futile and unpopular effort to hunt Villa down.
1–6 Dec 1914 Villa & Zapata take Mexico City▲
Pancho Villa and Emiliano Zapata moved into Mexico City.
28 Jan–10 Aug 1915 Villa & Zapata expelled from Mexico City▲
Venustiano Carranza's forces defeated Pancho Villa and Emiliano Zapata in protracted fighting over Mexico City.
7 May 1915 Sinking of the RMS Lusitania▲
German submarine U-20 torpedoed the RMS Lusitania in the North Atlantic Ocean off the southwest coast of Ireland, sinking her. The action killed 1,198 of the 1,959 people aboard, including 128 of 139 American passengers. Although she was a British ship carrying munitions and the German Embassy in Washington had issued a warning implying that she might be attacked, the sinking shocked the United States and helped galvanize opinion against Germany. In response, on 9 September 1915, Germany ordered the restriction of U-boat attacks to ships that were confirmed to be British, with no actions against passenger liners permitted at all.
28 Jul 1915 US occupies Haiti▲
US Marines landed at Port-au-Prince, Haiti, to safeguard US interests.
9 Mar 1916 Villa raids New Mexico▲
Mexican revolutionary Pancho Villa attacked Columbus, New Mexico.
14 Mar 1916–7 Feb 1917 US Mexican Expedition▲
The United States Army under General Pershing conducted a punitive expedition into northern Mexico in an attempt to capture Pancho Villa.