North America 1861: Fight for Kentucky
When the Civil War broke out, Kentucky had declared neutrality. This situation lasted for over three months, until a Confederate general, acting on his own initiative, occupied Columbus. In response to this blunder, Kentucky declared for the Union, thereby opening up the War's western theater.
25 Jul 1861 First Battle of Mesilla▲
Confederate forces from Texas defeated local Union forces at First Battle of Mesilla, New Mexico Territory.
1 Aug 1861 Confederate Territory of Arizona▲
Confederate forces in New Mexico Territory established the Territory of Arizona south of the 34th parallel, hoping to establish a route from which to eventually invade California.
4 Sep 1861 Confederates invade Kentucky▲
Confederate troops under Gen. Leonidas Polk invade the hitherto neutral state of Kentucky, occupying Columbus
6 Sep 1861 Union enters Kentucky▲
Union troops under Brigadier General Ulysses S. Grant occupied Paducah, Kentucky, in response to the Confederate invasion.
7 Sep 1861 Kentucky declares for the Union▲
On 7 September 1861, the Kentucky General Assembly passed resolution demanding the withdrawal of Confederate forces, declaring its allegiance with the Union.
12 Sep 1861 Mosquito Reservation created▲
The former British protectorate of Mosquito Kingdom was transformed into the Mosquito Reservation under the sovereignty of Nicaragua.
31 Oct 1861 Convention of London▲
Great Britain, France, and Spain signed Convention of London, forming a tripartite alliance to extract loan repayments from Mexico.
3–7 Nov 1861 Union captures Port Royal▲
The Union blockade of the Confederacy could not have been maintained without ready access to large fuel reserves. In order to establish a harbor from which coal could be transported and stored, a United States expeditionary force successfully launched an amphibious operation to capture the Port Royal Sound of South Carolina from the Confederacy. The Union Army then marched north to capture Beaufort, using the beachhead as a staging area from which to besiege Charleston.
8 Nov 1861–14 Jan 1862 Trent Affair▲
The Union interception of the British mail packet RMS Trent carrying Confederate diplomats temporarily threatened war between the United States and Britain.
8–17 Dec 1861 Tripartite fleets reach Mexico▲
British, Spanish and French fleets arrived off Veracruz, to begin pressure on Mexican government.
17 Dec 1861 Spanish occupy Veracruz▲
Spanish forces occupied San Juan de Ulua and Veracruz, Mexico.