North America 1863: Dominican Restoration War
In 1861, facing bankruptcy and a potential Haitian invasion, the government of the Dominican Republic had requested re-annexation by Spain. However, Spanish rule was never universally accepted, ultimately leading to a full-scale rebellion by Dominican nationalists. Unable to prevail, the Spanish withdrew in 1865, restoring the Republic's independence.
10 Jul 1863 Second Mexican Empire▲
The French-appointed Superior Junta proclaimed a Catholic Empire in Mexico.
13–16 Jul 1863 New York draft riots▲
Riots in New York City broke out in response to the Union introduction of conscription.
20 Jul 1863–Apr 1864 Long Walk of the Navajo▲
Union forces under Kit Carson used scorched earth policy to pressure the Navajo to surrender and relocate to the Bosque Redondo.
16 Aug 1863 Santo Domingo revolts▲
Dominican rebels raided their Spanish-occupied capital of Santo Domingo, raising the Dominican flag on Capotillo hill, triggering Dominican Restoration War.
21 Sep–25 Nov 1863 Chattanooga Campaign▲
With the Mississippi taken, Union forces now moved to cut off Confederate railroads. To this end, they fought Confederate forces around the major rail hub of Chattanooga, Tennessee. The Confederates were nearly cleared out of Tennessee, and the Union was ready to strike south into Georgia.
19 Nov 1863 Gettysburg Address▲
United States President Abraham Lincoln delivered his historic speech at Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, notably using the term "nation" rather than "union" to describe the United States.