North America 1846: Conquest of California & New Mexico
At the outbreak of the Mexican-American War, the US had sent a cavalry force to cross the continent and a naval squadron into the Pacific, intending both forces to meet in the Mexican territory of Alta California. However the local Mexican governors offered minimal resistance and both California and the neighboring territory of New Mexico fell well before the US forces could unite.
7 Jul–13 Aug 1846 Conquest of California▲
The United States Pacific Squadron under Commodore John Drake Sloat, supported by American settlers and volunteers, captured all the major ports and towns of the Mexican territory of Alta California, facing minimal resistance.
7 Jul 1846 Battle of Monterey▲
United States Commodore John D. Sloat landed 225 sailors and marines at Monterey, capital of the Mexican territory of Alta California; they captured the town without meeting resistance.
9 Jul 1846 End of California Republic▲
United States Navy Lieutenant Joseph Revere arrived in Sonoma, center of the Bear Flag Revolt against Mexican power in Alta California. the Bear Flag was replaced by a US flag, bringing an end to the California Republic.
8 Aug 1846 Wilmot Proviso▲
United States congressman David Wilmot introduced a proviso banning slavery in any territory acquired from Mexico in the Mexican War as a rider on a $2,000,000 appropriations bill intended for the resolution of the Mexican-American War; the proviso was rejected by the Senate, as were attempts to reintroduce it in 1847 and 1848.
16 Aug 1846 Santa Anna’s return▲
Former Mexican president Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna returned to Veracruz, Mexican Republic, from his Cuban exile aboard the British mail packet Arab. He was let through the United States blockade as he had pledged to help conclude a peace to end the Mexican-American War, and was accepted back in Mexico City a month later in response to his claims that he had no aspirations to the presidency and simply wanted the opportunity to fight off the US invasion.
18 Aug 1846 Capture of Santa Fe▲
United States Army General Stephen W. Kearny and his Army of the West entered Santa Fe, capital of the Mexican territory of New Mexico. They encountered no Mexican forces, as Governor Manuel Armijo had withdrawn south.