North America 1441: Collapse of the League of Mayapan
United since 987 under the League of Mayapan, the Maya of the Yucatán fell into civil war in 1441 when the ruler of Tutul Xiu massacred the royal family of Cocom. With the power of Mayapan broken, the League disintegrated into more than a dozen independent states over the next two decades.
[Actual date uncertain: Map depicts situation at the beginning of the war.]
1440–1468 Reign of Moctezuma I▲
After the Aztec emperor Itzcoatl died in 1440, his half-nephew, the 42-year-old Moctezuma, was elected to power by the nobles and crowned by the ruler of Texcoco. Moctezuma solidified the achievements of Itzcoatl, but a string of natural disasters encouraged him to start the Flower War against Tlaxcala and neighboring states in 1454. Later he led the Aztec expansion into Oaxaca and Mixtec territories in the southeast, before his eventual death in 1468.
1441–1461 Collapse of the League of Mayapan▲
In 1441 Ah Xiu Xupan of Tutul-Xiu, an important member of the League of Mayapan, turned against the royal family of Cocom and massacred them all except for one, who was in Honduras at the time. The war broke the power of the League, as uprisings broke out across the provinces. By 1461 the capital of Mayapan was in ruins and the League had disintegrated into more than a dozen independent Kuchkabals.