North America 1900: Thousand Days' War
The Spanish-American War gave the US an empire in the Caribbean and the Pacific and marked its emergence as a Great Power The first crisis of this period was in Colombia, where the ruling Conservative Party's rigging of elections and suppression of the Liberal Party triggered a revolt in 1899. Although the Conservatives won this Thousand Days' War in 1902, resentment remained in much of the country.
12 Aug 1898 Washington Peace Protocol▲
The United States and Spain signed the Washington Peace Protocol, agreeing to end hostilities and negotiate a peace treaty in Paris later that year.
12 Aug 1898 Annexation of Hawaii▲
After an 1897 attempt by United States President William McKinley to annex the Republic of Hawaii failed in the Senate, McKinley succeeded in pushing through the Newlands Resolution in July 1898. Under this resolution, the US officially annexed the Republic of Hawaii on 12 August in a ceremony held on the steps of ʻIolani Palace. The republic became the new Territory of Hawaii.
10 Dec 1898 Treaty of Paris▲
The United States of America signed the Treaty of Paris with the Kingdom of Spain, bringing a formal end to the Spanish-American War. By the terms of the treaty, Spain ceded Cuba, Puerto Rico, Guam, and the Philippines to the US (although the US agreed to pay $20 million for the Philippines). The Treaty of Paris came into effect on 11 April 1899, when the documents of ratification were exchanged.
3 Oct 1899 Essequibo Arbitration▲
Under the leadership of the United States, the British Guiana-Venezuela boundary dispute was successfully settled by a Tribunal of Arbitration in Paris on 3 October 1899. According to the award, most of the Essequibo River Basin—90% of the disputed territory—was to remain in British hands, while the headwaters of the Cuyuni would belong to Venezuela. Although disappointed, Venezuela accepted the ruling.
18 Oct 1899–21 Nov 1902 Thousand Days’ War▲
Civil war broke out in Colombia when the opposition Liberal Party accused the ruling Conservatives of maintaining power through fraudulent elections and started a rebellion in Santander. Over the course of three years fighting, the Conservatives successfully confined the main Liberal armies to Panama and the Atlantic coast, leading the latter to surrender in exchange for amnesty in October. By this time, the United States had sent in its navy to protect its interests, and the definitive peace treaty was signed aboard the USS Wisconsin on 21 November 1902.