North America 1845: Annexation of Texas
An even bigger flashpoint than Oregon was Texas, which wanted to join the US despite Mexican warnings that doing so would be considered an act of war. The first US attempts to annex Texas were blocked by Congress, with free state politicians worried about Texas' slave state status. Nonetheless popular opinion in both countries strongly favored annexation and Texas was finally admitted to the Union in 1845.
15 Dec 1843 Yucatan-Mexico Rapprochement▲
The Republic of Yucatán voluntarily rejoined the Mexican Republic on the condition that it would retain full autonomy.
27 Feb 1844–27 Nov 1845 Dominican War of Independence▲
Dominican rebels seized Ozama Fortress in Santo Domingo and declared their independence from Haiti; after a series of battles, they expelled Haitian forces from the new Dominican Republic but Haitian and international recognition of their state would elude them for decades.
9 Apr 1844 Second British Mosquito Coast Protectorate▲
The British government declared a new protectorate over the Miskito Kingdom, to be placed under the governor of Jamaica. The protectorate was claimed to extend from Cape Honduras in the north to the mouth of the San Juan River in the south, including San Juan del Norte (then part of Nicaragua).
30 Oct–6 Dec 1844 Santa Anna’s Overthrow▲
Mariano Paredes launched a revolt from Guadalajara, Mexican Republic, against Antonio Lopez Santa Anna and his handpicked president General Valentin Canalizo in Mexico City. In the following weeks, the garrisons of Aguascalientes, Mazatlan, Zacatecas, Colima, Durango and Queretaro rose to support the revolt, with the capital’s Acordada barracks turning on the president on December 6. Canalizo was arrested and General Jose Joaquin de Herrera was selected as president in his place. Santa Anna fled but was captured and banished to Cuba on 3 June 1845.
14 Nov 1844–20 Feb 1845 Jose Castro’s Rebellion▲
A rebellion broke out against Governor Manuel Micheltorena in Monterey, capital of the Mexican territory of Alta California, and soon came under the leadership of General Jose Castro. Despite being supported by the prominent Swiss American pioneer, John Sutter, and raising a large army of Mexicans, Indians, and foreigners, Micheltorena’s regime was declared illegitimate when the California Assembly joined the rebellion and pronounced their leader, Pio Pico, the new governor. Micheltorena was defeated at Encino, in the San Fernando Valley, and expelled.
28 Feb–1 Mar 1845 Texas Annexation Bill▲
The United States Congress approved the annexation of the Republic of Texas, allowing US President John Tyler to sign a bill authorizing this annexation the following day.
3 Mar 1845 Statehood for Florida▲
Florida Territory, United States of America, was admitted to the Union as the 27th state, Florida
4 Mar 1845 Inauguration of James Polk▲
James K. Polk (Jacksonian Democratic) succeeded John Tyler (Whig) as President of the United States of America.
29 Dec 1845 Annexation of Texas▲
The Republic of Texas is annexed by the United States of America and admitted to the Union as the 28th state, Texas; Texas formally relinquishes its sovereignty on February 19, 1846