Political map of Europe & the Mediterranean 03 July 1849 (Fall of the Last Roman Republic): The formation of the new Roman Republic (Roman Republic (19th century)) and expulsion of the Pope (Pope Pius IX) had been an affront to the Catholic powers of Europe. While Austria invaded the new Republic from the north, the French, despite their own recent republican revolution, landed troops in the south and laid siege to Rome (Siege of Rome (1849)). Eventually the Roman defenses gave way and their leader, the already famous revolutionary Giuseppe Garibaldi, was forced to flee through the enemy lines to San Marino and then abroad with his small army of Italian patriots.