Eastern Mediterranean 1958: United Arab Republic
The Suez Crisis turned Egypt's President Nasser into a hero and encouraged Syria to join Egypt in the United Arab Republic, intended as the first step towards a larger pan-Arab state. However the move was feared by the monarchies of Jordan and Iraq, who formed their own federation in response.
6 Aug–31 Oct 1957 Syrian Crisis of 1957▲
In August 1957 Syrian President Shukri al-Quwatli agreed to a long-term Soviet loan and began appointing a number of left-leaning officers to positions of power in the military. Western concerns about the spread of Soviet influence continued to rise and in September Turkey, backed by the United States, began massing troops on the Syrian border, prompting Egypt to send its own troops to Syria. The crisis settled in October after Jordan, Iraq, and Saudi Arabia voiced their support for Syria.
14 Feb–2 Aug 1958 Arab Federation▲
Responding to the formation of the United Arab Republic, the Kingdoms of Iraq and Jordan united as the Arab Federation, with King Faisal II of Iraq as head of state. The union—in reality a loose confederation—lasted only six months before Faisal was deposed by a military coup on 14 July, and was formally disestablished by Jordan on 2 August.
22 Feb 1958–5 Oct 1961 United Arab Republic▲
On 1 February 1958 Egypt and Syria proclaimed their political union as the United Arab Republic, with Egyptian President Gamal Abdel Nasser becoming president upon formation of the new state on 22 February. The union lasted until 28 September 1961, when Syrian Army officers, dissatisfied with domination by Egypt, seized power in Damascus and restored the Syrian Republic. On 5 October, Nasser recognized the Syrian secession, although Egypt would continue to call itself the United Arab Republic until 1971.