Eastern Mediterranean 2001: Second Intifada
Discussions between Israel and the Palestinian Authority led to the authority gaining more autonomy and territory in 1995, but further talks broke down in July 2000, in part due to disagreements over the status of Jerusalem. When Israeli opposition leader Ariel Sharon publicly visited Temple Mount in Jerusalem in September, the Palestinians were outraged and broke into rioting. Palestinian unrest lasted until 2005, when both sides finally negotiated an armistice.
15 Apr–11 Aug 1997 Operation Alba▲
In March 1997 the United Nations Security Council adopted Resolution 1101 to establish an operation to stabilize the situation in Albania. As a result, under Operation Alba, 7,265 troops of various nations under Italian leadership began arriving in Albania in April, initially at Durrës and Tirana. The peacekeeping forces soon secured most of the major cities and, after overseeing parliamentary elections, withdrew in early August.
24 Mar–11 Jun 1999 Kosovo War▲
The collapse of Yugoslavia saw the beginning of an insurgency by the separatist Kosovo Liberation Army. When the Yugoslav government retaliated against the KLA through collective punishment of ethnic Albanians in Kosovo, NATO intervened with an aerial bombing campaign. On 12 June 1999 Yugoslav President Slobodan Milošević agreed to NATO’s peace terms, allowing the NATO-led peacekeeping Kosovo Force (KFOR) to take over the administration of the region.
24 May 2000 Israeli evacuation of South Lebanon▲
In July 1999 Ehud Barak became Prime Minister of Israel on the promise that he would end Israel’s 22-year-long-occupation of southern Lebanon. The last Israeli forces left southern Lebanon in May 2000, abandoning their Maronite Christian allies, the South Lebanese Army, many of whose members relocated to northern Israel. As they withdrew, the Israelis were persistently harassed by the Shia Muslim guerrillas of Hezbollah, who quickly took control of the region.
29 Sep 2000–8 Feb 2005 Second Intifada▲
In the Middle East Peace Summit at Camp David (July 2000), talks between Israel and the Palestinian Authority broke down, in part because of conflicting claims over Jerusalem. When Israeli opposition leader Ariel Sharon publicly visited Temple Mount in Jerusalem in September, the Palestinians were outraged and broke into rioting. Unrest soon spread across the West Bank and Gaza, as well as in parts of Israel, leading the Israel Defense Forces to temporarily occupy the Palestinian Authority areas in 2002. Eventually in February 2005 Palestinian President Mahmoud Abbas and (by then) Israeli Prime Minister Ariel Sharon negotiated an armistice, largely bringing to the conflict to an end at the cost of some 3,000 Palestinian and 1,000 Israeli dead.
22 Jan–13 Aug 2001 NLA insurgency in Macedonia▲
As a result of the Kosovo War (1999), some 360,000 Kosovo Albanians temporarily found refuge in the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, a country of 1.9 million that already faced tensions with its 443,000-strong but under-represented Albanian minority. In January 2001 a group calling itself the National Liberation Army (NLA), composed of both Kosovo Liberation Army veterans and Macedonian Albanians, began an insurgency in northern Macedonia, seizing villages and attacking Macedonian police and security forces. The Macedonian government responded by militarily cracking down on the NLA but eventually, in August, NATO persuaded both sides to sign the Ohrid Framework Agreement, peacefully resolving the conflict by granting ethnic Albanians increased rights in Macedonia.