Eastern Mediterranean 1986: War of the Camps
The departure of the US-led Multinational Force from Beirut (1984) and the withdrawal of Israel to southern Lebanon (1985) saw the Lebanese Civil War enter its final phase, as previously allied factions turned against each other. In Muslim West Beirut the Shia Muslim faction Amal came into conflict with the Palestinians, Druze, and fellow Shia Hezbollah—a newly formed Iranian-backed group gaining prominence for its attacks on Israeli forces in the south. Finally the Syrian Army intervened, occupying West Beirut (1987) in support of Amal and forcibly bringing the civil war to an end by defeating the embattled Christian factions in 1989–1990.
Lebanese Civil War
The Lebanese Civil War was a complicated affair which involved dozens of factions and saw fighting both between and within political/religious groups, especially within Beirut, which was often split between multiple factions. As such it is only possible to give an approximate guide on these maps, showing only the major factions. These are listed as follows, grouped by their religious and political stance: Maronite Christian and Rightist: Lebanese Front (L.F.), Free Lebanon State/South Lebanon Army (F.L.S./S.L.A.); Palestinian and Leftist: Lebanese National Movement (L.N.M.); Druze: Druze militia (D.); Shia Muslim: Amal Movement (A.), Hezbollah (H.).
15 Aug 1984–1 Sep 1999 First P.K.K. uprising▲
In 1984 the Kurdistan Workers’ Party (PKK) announced a Kurdish uprising in eastern Turkey, citing Turkish oppression of the Kurds, such as the banning of the Kurdish language. In response to armed Kurdish attacks in the region, Turkey declared a state of emergency in the southeastern provinces and sent in large numbers of troops. The insurgency eventually ended in 1999, when the PKK declared a unilateral ceasefire and withdrew most of its forces to northern Iraq.
16 Feb 1985–25 May 2000 South Lebanon conflict▲
As Israel withdrew from Sidon, Lebanon, to occupy a security belt in the south of the country in 1985, Lebanese Shia Muslim militants began guerrilla raids, suicide bombings, and rocket attacks on Israeli troops. During that year, the newly-formed and Iranian-backed Hezbollah displaced the Syrian-backed Amal Movement to become the main organizer of Shia resistance in the region. Although the Lebanese Civil War officially ended in 1989, Hezbollah continued with its low-intensity warfare until the complete withdrawal of Israeli forces from southern Lebanon in 2000.
19 May 1985–7 Apr 1987 War of the Camps▲
Following the departure of the Multinational Force from Beirut in 1984, the Shia Muslim Amal Movement took control of West Beirut but soon came into conflict with the Palestinian camp militias. This started a phase of the Lebanese Civil War where previously aligned Shia, Druze, Palestinian, and other Muslim/leftist Lebanese factions fought for control over West Beirut and southern Lebanon. Eventually, in February 1987, the Syrian Army moved into West Beirut, supporting Amal against its rival Hezbollah and bringing a conclusion to the fighting.
25–27 Feb 1986 Egyptian conscripts riot▲
In February 1986 around 25,000 Egyptian conscripts of the paramilitary Central Security Forces (CSF) staged violent protests in and around Cairo in reaction to a rumor that their three-year compulsory service would be extended by a year without additional benefits. President Hosni Mubarak sent in the Egyptian Army to restore order, crushing the mutiny over the course of three days at the cost of 107 dead, mostly among the CSF.
13 Mar–9 Apr 1986 Damascus bombings▲
In March 1986 a truck bomb detonated under a bridge in Damascus killed 60 people and injured 100 more. Additional bombings in April in Damascus and four other Syrian towns killed another 144. The Syrian government blamed Iraq for the attacks.