Eastern Mediterranean 36 AD: Clitae Revolts
The Taurus Mountains of southern Anatolia were a hotbed of banditry and rebellion for much of Roman history. It was here that the Clitae of Cilicia revolted in 36 AD—and again in 52/53—rejecting Roman regulations and taxation until being suppressed by military force.
35–36 AD Armenian Succession War of 35▲
After the death of Artaxias III Zeno of Armenia, the Parthian shah Artabanus II installed his son Arsaces as Roman Client King of Armenia in 34 AD, only for him to be poisoned by servants. As a replacement, Artabanus sent in Arsaces’ younger brother, Orodes, but this choice was rejected by the Roman emperor Tiberius, who instead backed the Iberian prince Mithridates. In 35 AD the Iberians and their Albanian and Sarmatian allies invaded Armenia, expelling Orodes and installing Mithridates as king. Artabanus marched north in support of his son, but backed down when Lucius Vitellius, Roman governor of Syria, threatened to intervene in the war.
36 AD Parthian Civil War of 36▲
In 35/36 AD, following Parthia’s unsuccessful intervention in Armenia, the Parthian nobility deposed Artabanus II and applied to the Roman emperor Tiberius for a new shah. In response, the Romans released a hostage prince, the grandson of Phraates IV, to assume the Parthian crown as Tiridates III. However, the Parthians soon came to regard Tiridates as a Roman vassal and, when Artabanus returned from his refuge in Hyrcania with an army of Dahan (Scythian) auxiliaries, the old shah swiftly ousted the new one.
36–53? AD Clitae Revolts▲
In 36 AD the Clitae—a Cilician tribal people—rejected Roman regulations and taxation, rising up against the Roman-installed Archelaus of Cappadocia (probably a king of Cilicia Trachea). The rebels held out in the Taurus Mountains until Roman troops arrived from Syria and defeated them. A second revolt occurred in 52/53 AD, in which the Clitae besieged the town of Anemurium but were eventually placated by Antiochus IV of Commagene (who ruled Cilicia at the time).