Eastern Mediterranean 195: Annexation of Osroene
Following the fall of Pescennius Niger in Syria (194), the Roman client kingdom of Osroene and the Parthian client kingdom of Adiabene besieged the Roman city of Nisibis. Septimius Severus responded by conquering Osroene and annexing almost all of its territory—except for Edessa—as the Roman province of Osrhoene.
194? Syria Coele and Phoenice▲
Not long after his defeat of Pescennius Niger in Syria in 194, the Roman emperor Septimius Severus divided up the large Roman province of Syria Palestina. The northern part became Syria Coele (commonly known as Coele-Syria), retaining the original province’s capital at Antioch, and the middle part Syria Phoenice, capital Tyre. The southern part kept the name Syria Palestina, but its capital became Caesarea Maritima.
195–196 Clodius Albinus’ revolt▲
In late 195, accusing his former ally of conspiring against him, the Roman emperor Septimius Severus revoked Clodius Albinus’ title of Caesar and persuaded the Senate to declare him a public enemy. Albinus crossed the Channel in early 196, declaring himself Emperor and quickly gaining support in Gaul and Spain. Later that year he defeated the governor of Lower Germania, but was unable to break through into the east.
195 Osrhoene province▲
Following the fall of Roman usurper Pescennius Niger in Syria (194), the Roman client kingdom of Osroene and the Parthian client kingdom of Adiabene besieged the Roman city of Nisibis. Septimius Severus responded by marching on Osroene and laying siege to its capital Edessa. Bringing the war to an end in late 195, Severus annexed most of Osroene as the Roman province of Osrhoene (capital Nisibis), leaving King Agbar VIII of Osroene to rule just a small enclave around Edessa.