Eastern Mediterranean 2011: Arab Spring
In December 2010–January 2011 revolutionary protests overthrew the government in Tunisia and were almost immediately followed by similar movements across the Arab world. On 25 January massive protests broke out in Egypt, leading to the overthrow of President Hosni Mubarak on 11 February.
30 Jun 2009–18 Dec 2011 US withdrawal from Iraq▲
Following international and domestic pressure, the United States and its remaining Coalition partners planned in 2007 to withdraw from Iraq. In accordance with a Status of Forces agreement, the US withdrawal began on 30 June 2009 and was completed on 18 December 2011, officially ending the Iraq War.
17 Dec 2010–3 Feb 2012 Arab Spring▲
Starting in Tunisia, revolutionary protests swept the Arab world. The Tunisian government was overthrown in January 2011; President Hosni Mubarak resigned in Egypt in February; Libya collapsed into a civil war, leading to the capture and execution of dictator Muammar Gaddafi in October. Protests also occurred in Oman, Yemen, Syria, and Morocco. However by early 2012, the tide had subsided and the regimes had begun to reassert themselves.
14 Jan 2011–18 Nov 2012 Arab Spring in Jordan▲
Inspired by the 2010–11 revolution in Tunisia, Jordanians took to the streets in January 2011 to protest food inflation, salaries, and other economic conditions. In response to the ongoing unrest, King Abdullah II sacked two prime ministers in succession, only for renewed protests to erupt over fuel prices in September–November 2012. To resolve the situation the king dissolved parliament again, reformed parts of the constitution, and called for early elections in 2013, while deploying security forces to bring an end to the last riots.
25 Jan–11 Feb 2011 Egyptian Revolution▲
On 25 January 2011 Egyptian youth groups began protesting against increasing police brutality under the last few years of Hosni Mubarak’s presidency and were soon joined by millions of other protestors from widely different backgrounds, who were fed up with the oppression, corruption, and economic problems Egypt faced under Mubarak’s regime. When the police proved unable to suppress the protests, the Egyptian government sent in the military, but even they could not enforce government-imposed curfews in the face of overwhelming numbers of protestors. Bowing to the inevitable, Mubarak resigned on 11 February and handed power over to the Supreme Council of the Armed Forces, who announced that they would suspend the constitution and govern for six months until elections could be held.
5 Feb 2011–pres. Sinai insurgency▲
In February 2011, exploiting the chaos of the Egyptian revolution, Bedouin tribesmen and militants began launching a series of attacks on Egyptian government forces in North Sinai and across the border into southern Israel. The insurgents were soon joined by foreign Islamist militants and in November 2014 announced their allegiance to the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL/Daesh) as the Sinai Province group. Repeated Egyptian military operations to crush the insurgency eventually restored some order to the region by January 2023, allowing Egyptian President Abdel-Fattah Al-Sisi to proclaim victory in North Sinai, even as sporadic insurgent attacks continued.