Eastern Mediterranean 6 AD: Roman annexation of Judea
In 6 AD Herod Archelaus, ruler of Judea and Idumea, made the sacrilegious decision to divorce his wife in order to marry his brother’s widow, provoking discontent among his Jewish subjects. In response, the Romans intervened, annexing Herod’s domain as the Roman province of Judea.
2 AD Gaius–Phraates Treaty▲
In 1 BC Augustus sent his grandson and heir, the 20-year-old Gaius Caesar, to invade Parthia in response to a new dispute over Armenia. Instead, after a year of negotiations, Gaius and the Parthian shah Phraates V concluded a peace treaty recognizing Roman supremacy over the contested kingdom. While both signatories died two years later—Gaius from a later wounding, Phraates by assassination—the ensuing peace lasted over half a century.
6 AD Province of Moesia▲
The first mention of Moesia as a separate Roman province from Macedonia was in 6 AD, when its governor, Aulus Caecina Severus, was called upon to help suppress the Great Illyrian Revolt of 6–9 AD. His departure encouraged Dacian and Sarmatian raiders to cross the Danube into Moesia, but the province was soon stabilized.
6–9 AD Great Illyrian Revolt▲
In 6 AD a number of Illyrian tribes revolted against Roman rule under the leadership of Bato the Daesitiate, and were quickly joined by other tribes under Bato the Breuci. The revolt threatened the neighboring provinces of Noricum, Moesia, Macedonia, and most importantly Italy, compelling Emperor Augustus to recall Tiberius from his campaigns in Germania. The veteran Roman troops, supported by Rome’s Thracian allies, crushed the Breuci in 8 AD and the Daesitiates the following year.
6 AD Roman Judea▲
In 6 AD King Herod Archelaus of Judea divorced his first wife to marry his brother Alexander’s widow Glaphyra—who already had had children by Alexander and simultaneously divorced her second husband, King Juba of Mauretania, to be with Archelaus. This violation of Jewish law provoked a mass uprising, leading Rome to depose Archelaus and annex Judea and Idumea as the Roman province of Judea. In response Judas of Galilee led a small insurgency against the Romans, but this was quickly quelled.