Eastern Mediterranean 1984: Multinational Force in Lebanon
Following Israel’s invasion of Lebanon (1982), a US-led Multinational Force (MNF) landed in Beirut to supervise the withdrawal of PLO and Israeli forces and restore the Lebanese government to power. Although successful at securing the withdrawals, the MNF ultimately failed in its mission as increasing clashes between Christians, Muslims, and Druze saw Lebanon fall back into civil war.
Lebanese Civil War
The Lebanese Civil War was a complicated affair which involved dozens of factions and saw fighting both between and within political/religious groups, especially within Beirut, which was often split between multiple factions. As such it is only possible to give an approximate guide on these maps, showing only the major factions. These are listed as follows, grouped by their religious and political stance: Maronite Christian and Rightist: Lebanese Front (L.F.), Free Lebanon State/South Lebanon Army (F.L.S./S.L.A.); Palestinian and Leftist: Lebanese National Movement (L.N.M.); Druze: Druze militia (D.); Shia Muslim: Amal Movement (A.), Hezbollah (H.).
21 Aug 1982–20 Dec 1983 PLO withdrawal from Lebanon▲
The 1982 Israeli invasion of Lebanon left the bulk of Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) forces surrounded in Beirut. Following negotiations, PLO leader Yasser Arafat agreed to withdraw all his forces from the country, beginning with Beirut in August–September. The PLO remained in northern Lebanon for another year, completing its withdrawal in December 1983 under Syrian pressure. As a result, Arafat moved the organization’s base to Tunis, Tripoli.
25 Aug 1982–31 Mar 1984 Multinational Force in Lebanon▲
To bring an end to the 1982 Lebanon War, the Multinational Force in Lebanon (MNF)—a peacekeeping force consisting of US, French, Italian, and British troops—arrived in Beirut, supervising the withdrawal of the PLO and restoring the Lebanese government to power. Despite a promising start, the force was unable to prevent the re-escalation of civil war in Lebanon and faced growing hostility—most notably in the October 1983 barracks bombing that killed 241 US and 58 French servicemen. In early 1984 the MNF withdrew and was replaced by units of the UN Interim Force in Lebanon (already present in southern Lebanon).
3 Sep 1983–6 Feb 1984 Mountain War▲
When Israel agreed to withdraw from central Lebanon, it planned to hand over control of the country it was evacuating to the Maronite Christian-dominated Lebanese Forces (LF) and the restored Lebanese Armed Forces (LAF). This plan was opposed by the local Druze militias and their Muslim and leftist allies, who drove out the LF and LAF as they attempting to bring government control to the Chouf, Aley, and West Beirut districts. Defeated, the LAF collapsed along secular lines, while the victorious Druze and Muslims immediately turned to fighting each other.
3 Sep 1983–29 Apr 1985 Israeli withdrawal to South Lebanon▲
After the departure of the PLO from Beirut and the arrival of the US-French-Italian Multinational Force in Lebanon, Israel withdrew from central Lebanon in three phase (1983—1985) as agreed. Following this withdrawal, 1,000 Israeli troops remained in the southern border region to maintain a South Lebanon security belt administration with the support of the Maronite Christian Antoine Lahad’s 2,400-strong South Lebanese Army.
15 Nov 1983 Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus▲
Eight years after Turkish-occupied northern Cyprus formed the Turkish Federated State of North Cyprus, Northern Cypriot State President Rauf Denktaş presented the Declaration of Independence of the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus to the Turkish Cypriot parliament in North Nicosia in November 1983. The declaration was unanimously ratified by parliament that day, proclaiming Northern Cyprus an independent and sovereign state. The new state was immediately recognized by Turkey but no other countries followed suit, with the UN Security Council issuing a resolution proclaiming that the declaration was legally invalid.