Eastern Mediterranean 1994: Palestinian National Authority
Peace talks between Israel and the PLO culminated in the 1993 Oslo Accords, when both parties agreed to the creation of a self-governing Palestinian National Authority. The new entity came into being in May 1994, with territory assigned to it in Jericho (in the West Bank) and the Gaza Strip. Israel, however, retained control of the authority’s defense and foreign relations.
25 Dec 1991 Dissolution of the Soviet Union▲
On the morning of 25 December 1991, in a nationally televised speech, Mikhail Gorbachev resigned as president of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, declaring the office extinct and ceding all its powers to Russian president Boris Yeltsin. At 7:32 pm that night, the Soviet flag was lowered for the last time in Moscow and the Russian tricolor raised in its place, symbolically marking the end to the Soviet Union and the independence of the eleven remaining Soviet republics.
20 Aug–13 Sep 1993 Oslo I Accord▲
In secret negotiations in Oslo, Norway, completed on 20 August 1993, the government of Israel and the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) agreed to the creation of a Palestinian interim self-government, the Palestinian National Authority (PNA), in parts of the Gaza Strip and West Bank. These Oslo Accords—the first face-to-face agreement between the government of Israel and the PLO—were then officially signed at a public ceremony in Washington, D.C., on 13 September, in the presence of PLO chairman Yasser Arafat, Israeli Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin, and US President Bill Clinton.
4 May 1994 Gaza–Jericho Agreement▲
On 4 May 1994 PLO leader Yasser Arafat and Israeli Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin signed the Gaza–Jericho Agreement, creating the Palestinian Authority (PA) and providing for limited Palestinian self-rule in the West Bank and Gaza Strip. Israel handed over the Jericho area of the West Bank to the PA on the 13th and the Gaza Strip on the 18th. On 5 July 1994 Yasser Arafat became the PA’s first president, although the authority’s administrative responsibilities remained limited to civil matters and internal security.