Eastern Mediterranean 1949: UN Recognition of Israel
In 1949 Egypt, Lebanon, Jordan, and Syria signed separate armistices with the State of Israel, delineating but not recognizing Israeli control over 78% of Mandatory Palestine. Acknowledging the situation, the United Nations admitted Israel as a member in May, despite Muslim opposition.
24 Feb–20 Jul 1949 1949 Armistice Agreements▲
Between February and July 1949, the government of Israel signed armistice agreements with Egypt, Lebanon, Jordan, and Syria. Under these agreements, 78% of what had been Mandatory Palestine was placed under Israeli control. In exchange for peace, Jordan was allowed to maintain control of the mountainous region henceforth known as the West Bank, which it annexed unilaterally on 24 April 1950, while Egypt continued to occupy the coastal region known as the Gaza Strip. Following these agreements, the 1949 Lausanne Conference recognized all areas under Israeli control to be part of Israel.
1 Mar 1949–24 Dec 1951 Emirate of Cyrenaica▲
In March 1949 Sayyid Idris unilaterally proclaimed Cyrenaica—at the time under British administration—as an independent Senussi emirate, separate from Libya. Although the United Kingdom recognized the new state, the United Nations did not. As a compromise, Sayyid Idris became king of Libya when it gained full independence in 1951.
5–10 Mar 1949 Operation Uvda▲
In March 1949 Israel turned to capture outposts in the southern Negev desert, then largely under Jordanian control. Israeli forces swiftly advanced eastwards to seize Ein Gedi on the Dead Sea and Umm Rashrash (now Eilat) on the Red Sea, facing minimal resistance. This operation was the last campaign in the First Arab–Israeli War.
4 Apr 1949 North Atlantic Treaty▲
The North Atlantic Treaty was signed in Washington DC, creating a formal alliance—the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, or NATO—between Belgium, France, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom, Canada, Denmark, Iceland, Italy, Norway, Portugal, and the United States. The treaty, primarily directed against the Soviet Union, committed each member state to consider any armed attack against another member state, in Europe or North America, to be an attack against them all.
11 May 1949 UN Recognition of Israel▲
In May 1949 the United Nations adopted UN General Assembly Resolution 273, admitting the State of Israel to UN membership. The resolution was adopted with 37 votes for, 12 against, and 9 abstentions. The admission was contentious, with many states—especially in the Muslim world—refusing to diplomatically recognize Israel.