Eastern Mediterranean 74 AD: Siege of Masada
Following the Roman capture of Jerusalem (70), some 960 Sicarii—a fanatical Jewish sect—continued to hold out in the remote mountain stronghold of Masada. In 73–74 the Romans besieged and eventually captured the fortress, bringing an end to the Great Jewish Revolt.
70–111 AD Galatia et Cappadocia▲
Following his victory in the civil wars of 69 AD, the Roman emperor Vespasian upgraded Cappadocia to a senatorial province, making its governor equal in rank with that of Syria. The neighboring province of Galatia was absorbed into Cappadocia to form the province of Galatia et Cappadocia—a state of affairs which would last until the provinces were separated again under Trajan in the 110s.
72 AD Alan invasion of Parthia▲
By the 70s AD Parthia seems to have fallen into civil war, although details are unclear. In 72 a horde of Alans—arriving from east of the Caspian Sea—allied with the king of Hyrcania, who allowed them passage through his land to invade the Parthian Empire. Plundering Media Atropatene and prompting King Pacorus to flee the country, the Alans advanced on through Armenia, where they defeated and almost killed King Tiridates before returning to their homeland.
73–74 AD Siege of Masada▲
Following the Roman capture of Jerusalem in 70 AD, some 960 Sicarii—a fanatical Jewish sect—continued to hold out in the remote mountain stronghold of Masada. In 73–74 AD the Romans advanced on the fortress, surrounding it with a circumvallation wall and building a massive ramp from which to assault the Sicarii. According to Josephus, the Sicarii chose death by murder-suicide to avoid capture and enslavement; regardless, Masada fell to the Romans, bringing an end to the Great Jewish Revolt.
73? AD Roman Emesa▲
In 73 AD Priest King Sohaemus of Emesa (54–73) died and was succeeded by his son Gaius Julius Alexion (73–78). Although Alexion and his descendants continued to rule in Emesa, it seems that at some point during Alexion’s reign the kingdom ceased to be a Roman client state and became part of the province of Syria.
74 AD Lycia et Pamphylia▲
In 74 AD Vespasian removed Pamphylia from the province of Galatia et Cappadocia, uniting it with Lycia to create the new province of Lycia et Pamphylia. The new province was governed from Attalia (Antalya) in Pamphylia.