Political map of Europe & the Mediterranean 24 February 1848 (Year of Revolution Begins): By 1848, Europe was already experiencing considerable social tension, in good part due to the rise of industrialization (Industrial Revolution) but also because of the European potato famine, both of which led to a migration of the poor to the cities. At the same time, the continent was becoming ideologically divided between the conservative order (Concert of Europe), which was rigidly maintaining the borders and regimes set up in 1815 (Congress of Vienna), and the various proponents of change - nationalists (Nationalism), republicans (Republicanism), liberals (Liberalism) and socialists (Socialism). In January, Sicily revolted against rule by Naples (Sicilian revolution of 1848), triggering a wave of unrest among the Italian states (Revolutions of 1848 in the Italian states). The next month, an uprising in Paris overthrew King Louis Philippe (French Revolution of 1848) and proclaimed the second French Republic. The Year of Revolution had begun.