Political map of Europe & the Mediterranean 21 March 1848 (March Revolutions): The success of the French (French Revolution of 1848) and Italian (Revolutions of 1848 in the Italian states) revolutions helped inspire uprisings across the German Confederation (Revolutions of 1848 in the German states), with nationalists calling for a united German Empire. In mid-March, Vienna went into revolt (Revolutions of 1848 in the Austrian Empire), forcing the elderly Chancellor Metternich (Klemens von Metternich), a pillar of the conservative order in Europe since 1815 (Concert of Europe), to resign and flee the city. With Metternich gone, revolution spread through the Austrian Empire with Hungary declaring its autonomy (12 points of the Hungarian Revolutionaries of 1848). On the 17th, Prussia was shaken by revolt in Berlin. After days of street fighting, King Frederick William (Frederick William IV of Prussia) backed down, declaring his support for the people and the German Empire.