Focus on the Middle East

The Cold War

Europe 1977.0615

Focus on the Middle East

The Cold War in Europe (15 June 1977)

Historical Map of Europe & the Mediterranean

In 1967, Israel had conquered large swathes of Arab territory. In 1973, Soviet-supported Egypt and Syria attempted to retake these lands. They failed, but US backing of Israel led to an Arab oil embargo against the West. Further instability in the region occurred when ethnic tension led to a Turkish invasion of Cyprus and Palestinian refugees helped set off a civil war in Lebanon.

Main Events

Britain, Denmark, and Ireland become members of the EEC

Yom Kippur War

Egypt and Syria attack Israel

OAPEC oil embargo begins

The Organization of Arab Petroleum Exporting Countries (OAPEC) decided to cut oil production to force the United States to end its support of Israel.

Turkish troops land in Northern Cyprus in response to Greek Cypriot coup

Lebanese Civil War

By 1975, demographic trends and a large influx of Palestinian refugees led Muslims to become the majority population in Lebanon, undermining the authority of the mandatorily majority-Christian government. On April 13 of that year, fighting broke out between government-aligned Phalangists and the leftist-aligned Palestinian Liberation Organization, triggering civil war. The following year, Syria invaded Lebanon in support of the government, and though unable to effect any major advantage, continued occupying much of the country.

Spanish referendum gives approval to free parliamentary elections

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