Spectre of Communism

Armistice Europe

Europe 1919.0409

Spectre of Communism

The Treaty of Versailles and the European Revolutions in the wake of World War I (9 April 1919)

Historical Map of Europe & the Mediterranean

When the Great War ended, the Bolsheviks renounced their treaty with Germany and began to reconquer the old Russian Empire. Europe was still very unstable and Communist revolutionaries across the continent rallied to the Bolshevik cause. The most successful was Bela Kun in Hungary, who invaded Czechoslovakia.

Main Events

Bolsheviks take Kiev

Hungarian Soviet Republic

Five months after the Hungarian Democratic Republic was established, the Hungarian Communists, led by imprisoned leader Béla Kun, led a coup against the ruling Social Democrats, establishing the Hungarian Soviet Republic.

Bavarian Soviet Republic

One day after the Armistice, the Bavarian King Ludwig III abdicated in favor of the revolutionary government formed by social activist Kurt Eisner several days earlier. However, a Soviet Republic was proclaimed in Munich on 6 April 1919, followed by a full Communist takeover on 12 April.

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