The Cold War
The Cold War in Europe (25 April 1982)
Historical Map of Europe & the Mediterranean
To defuse tensions in the Middle East, the US encouraged a permanent peace settlement between Egypt and Israel. However, while Egypt and the Arab nationalists were largely coming to terms with the West, a fundamentalist Islam was on the rise that opposed both Cold War alliances. In 1979, an Islamist revolution in Iran overthrew the pro-Western Shah. Later that year, Soviet forces invaded Afghanistan to support its Communist government against a similar uprising.
In July 1977, Egypt accused Libya of sponsoring terrorist activities within Egypt in protest of Egyptian peace talks with Israel, leading to a short border war between the two countries. Egypt was victorious, resulting in a ceasefire and return to status quo ante bellum
Camp David Talks
The high cost of the Yom Kippur War convinced Egypt and Israel to negotiate for peace. In September 1978, the United States mediated talks resulting in a 1979 peace treaty. Israel relinquished control of the Sinai in exchange for recognition by Egypt and partial demilitarization on the peninsula.