Post-Cold War Europe
Europe after the Cold War (12 June 1999)
Historical Map of Europe & the Mediterranean
Serb attempts at "ethnic cleansing" in Bosnia led to NATO intervention and the UN occupation of Bosnia-Herzegovina. After this defeat, Serb nationalists turned inwards, against Kosovo Albanians in the Yugoslav republic of Serbia itself. Again NATO intervened, forcing the Serbs to accept the UN administration of Kosovo.
Collective Security Treaty
On May 15, 1992, the former Soviet States of Armenia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Russia, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan signed the Confederation of Independent States Collective Security Treaty (which would become the Collective Security Treaty Organization in 2002). The military alliance went into effect on April 20, 1994, by which time Azerbaijan, Belarus, and Georgia had agreed to join. However, Azerbaijan, Georgia, and Uzbekistan would decline to renew their membership in 1999.
First Chechen War
Russian attempts to suppress the secessionist Chechen Republic of Ichkeria proved harder than expected due to Chechen insurgent tactics. As the operation lost popular support, Russia was forced to accept Chechnya's de-facto independence.
1995 enlargement of EU
Austria, Finland, and Sweden acceded to the European Union. Norway and Switzerland had also applied for membership, but had withdrawn their requests after negative referendums at home.
The General Framework Agreement for Peace in Bosnia and Herzegovina, also known as the Dayton Agreement, was formally signed in Paris on 14 December 1995, ending the Bosnian War.
Launch of the Euro
The official launch of the Euro on 1 January 1999 created a monetary union among Austria, Belgium, Finland, France, Germany, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Portugal and Spain - collectively known as the Eurozone. The Euro was initially used alongside national currencies until physical notes and coins were introduced on 1 January 2002. Between 2000 and 2015 another eight states would adopt the currency.
The collapse of Communism enticed many central European countries to seek closer ties with the west. In 1991, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, and Poland formed the Visegrád Group, which successfully lobbied to join NATO in 1999 (with the exception of the then-independent Slovakia).
The collapse of Yugoslavia saw the beginning of an insurgency by the separatist Kosovo Liberation Army. When the Yugoslav government retaliated against the KLA through collective punishment of ethnic Albanians in Kosovo, NATO intervened with an aerial bombing campaign. On 12 June 1999 Yugoslav President Slobodan Milošević agreed to NATO's peace terms, allowing the NATO-led peacekeeping Kosovo Force (KFOR) to take over the administration of the region.