Post-Cold War Europe
Europe after the Cold War (12 June 1999)
Historical Map of Europe & the Mediterranean
Serb attempts at "ethnic cleansing" in Bosnia led to NATO intervention and the UN occupation of Bosnia-Herzegovina. After this defeat, Serb nationalists turned inwards, against Kosovo Albanians in the Yugoslav republic of Serbia itself. Again NATO intervened, forcing the Serbs to accept the UN administration of Kosovo.
Collective Security Treaty
On May 15, 1992, the former Soviet States of Armenia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Russia, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan signed the Confederation of Independent States Collective Security Treaty (which would become the Collective Security Treaty Organization in 2002). The military alliance went into effect on April 20, 1994, by which time Azerbaijan, Belarus, and Georgia had agreed to join. However, Azerbaijan, Georgia, and Uzbekistan would decline to renew their membership in 1999.
First Chechen War
Russia forced to accept Chechen de-facto independence
1995 enlargement of the European Union
Austria, Finland, and Sweden accede to the European Union. Norway and Switzerland had also applied for membership, but had withdrawn their requests after negative referendums at home.
Dayton Agreement over Bosnia
General Framework Agreement for Peace in Bosnia and Herzegovina, also known as the Dayton Agreement, formally signed in Paris
Official launch of the euro creates a monetary union among Austria, Belgium, Finland, France, Germany, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Portugal and Spain