Cause and Effect
Brexit and the Crisis of Europe
The 'Leave' vote in United Kingdom's referendum on membership of the European Union ('Brexit') has been greeted with concern ...
the Arctic 1818
Treaty of 1818
Fighting between Britain and the United States came to an end in 1815, with the Allies defeating Napoleon later that ...
In the early 1840s, Switzerland was still more a confederation of cantons than a nation state. The leading Radical Party ...
Truce of Malmö
In Northern Europe, international pressure persuaded Prussia and Denmark to bring an end to the First Schleswig War and sign ...
In October 1911, Italy invaded the Ottoman Turkish provinces in North Africa. The Italians quickly conquered the coastal cities but ...
Somme and Brusilov Offensives
With Verdun still raging, British and French forces launched a massive attack on the Germans in the Somme while the ...
Treaty of Versailles
Australians and New Zealanders fought together as the ANZACs against Turkey at Gallipoli. After this campaign failed, many were deployed ...
Allies Under Pressure
Britain, France, and Italy had grabbed much territory in the wake of the World War, but by 1920 events had ...
the Arctic 1920
Far Eastern Republic
The Great War ended in November 1918 with an armistice with Germany, encouraging most of the Allies to also end ...
With the collapse of the Ottoman Empire, Greece moved troops into western Turkey to protect the sizeable local Greek population ...
Irish Civil War
The Irish War of Independence from Great Britain ended in December 1921 with a treaty dividing Ireland into two parts ...
Statute of Westminster
Over the course of the 1920s, Britain moved to give all its Dominions greater independence, culminating in 1931 when it ...
the Arctic 1932
Erik the Red's Land
In return for Denmark abandoning any claims on Svalbard, Norway had agreed to recognize Danish sovereignty over Greenland. However, northeast ...
Hitler Gains Power
The Great Depression that started in 1929, resulted in massive world-wide unemployment. Germany was especially hard hit, with 6 million ...
North America 1934
The Great Depression hit the United States hard, with a nearly 45% drop in industrial production and widespread unemployment peaking ...
Sub-Saharan Africa 1961
UN Action Against Katanga
A major step towards defusing the Congo Crisis occurred in August 1961, when Gizenga agreed to recognize the government in ...
Cold War Rivalry in the Middle East
In 1967, Israel conquered large swathes of Arab territory, which Soviet-supported Egypt and Syria attempted to retake in 1973. When ...
By 1992, Yugoslavia and Croatia were ready to accept a UN-backed ceasefire. Although this didn't end all fighting in ...
Serb attempts at "ethnic cleansing" in Bosnia led to NATO intervention and the UN occupation of Bosnia-Herzegovina. After this defeat ...